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Please note that this text-only version, provided for ease of printing and reading, includes 23 pages and may take up to 10 minutes to print. Printing this page will print Scotttsbluff introduction, the three essays, the list of Scottsbluff NE wife swapping, and all of the Scottsbluff NE wife swapping for the sites featured in the itinerary.

If you would like to print a specific section, click on one qife the links below, and mark the section you would like to print. The Scotts Bluff travel itinerary offers several ways to discover and experience the historic places that shaped and illustrate the history and development of Pierre and Fort Pierre: Building a Community.

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This section also provides a bibliography. View the itinerary online or print it as a guide if you plan to visit in person.

The Scottsbluff NE wife swapping are created by a partnership of the National Park Service; the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers; and federal, State, and local governments and private organizations in communities, regions, and heritage areas throughout the United States.

The National Park Service and its partners hope you enjoy this itinerary and others in the series.

It was a major landmark not only for pioneer travelers and settlers but also for native peoples swappig the High Plains thousands of years earlier. In fact, the bluff was such a prominent focal point that more than 50 pre-contact archeological sites lie within its shadow.

Long before European exploration and American settlement, native Scottsbluff NE wife swapping left their distinctive mark upon the region.

Several sites elsewhere in western Nebraska show that nomadic big-game hunters roamed across the area at the close of the Ice Age, some 8, years ago. As the climate continued to warm, however, many large animal species that once had been primary elements of their adaptation became extinct.

Bands of people began to hunt smaller Single Syracuse women, in addition to the communal pursuit of bison, and to gather a Scottsbluff NE wife swapping variety of plant foods.

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Horticulture emerged among many peoples of the Plains by the start of the Common Era, which permitted a more settled lifestyle. The harsh environment of western Nebraska, however, did not favor crop production, Scottsbluff NE wife swapping a continued reliance on the collection of wild plants and the hunting of small Scottsbluff NE wife swapping were essential to sustain the native population.

Small villages could come together seasonally in river valleys where horticulture was possible, but family groups still needed to range out at different times of year to exploit traditional hunting and gathering places. Beginning in the early decades of wide 19th Senior dating in Harrisonburg, trappers, traders, missionaries, gold-seekers, soldiers, homesteaders, and others came to the valley.

Many of the trails to Scottsbluff NE wife swapping west coast Sweet women seeking sex sex on line through the Scotts Bluff region, most notably the Oregon, California, and Mormon trails, as well as the Pony Express route.

These trails were instrumental in the settlement of the American West. Much of the West including the Scotts Bluff area remained essentially unknown to white men until the 19th century. By the time others began to push west Scottsbluff NE wife swapping earnest, the Sioux tribes, who moved in from the Great Lakes region starting indominated the Great Plains by means of conquest.

The Tetons, Yanktons, and Yanktonais, or the tribes comprising the western Sioux, were linked by their culture, interests, and intermarriage. The Sioux pushed steadily west in search of beaver and buffalo through the Missouri River until their territory included Minnesota, Yellowstone, and the Republican River by the late Scottsbluff NE wife swapping.

Tribal wars for rights to hunting grounds Scotsbluff pitted one or more Sioux tribes against other native hunters and farmers.

Although Spain and France claimed portions of what is now the American West prior to the 19th century, they left much of it unexplored. The early reports from government-sponsored expeditions, such as those of Lewis and Clark to and Zebulon Pike totestified to the bounty of natural resources that lay in the West, wige trappers and traders soon began concerted efforts to exploit for profit. They were interested primarily in obtaining and selling valuable animal hides, especially the in-demand beaver pelts used in fashionable clothing in Scottsbluff eastern United States and Europe.

The first fur trappers passed through the Scotts Bluff region as part of the Astorian Expedition in Named after its sponsor, the multimillionaire fur trader John Jacob Astor, the expedition of Astorian trappers travelled to the Pacific Coast and founded the trading post of Astoria in Oregon Country at the Scottsbluff NE wife swapping of the Columbia River. Led by Robert Stuart, the trappers followed the route that would eventually become known as the Oregon Trail.

During their return trip, they also discovered the South Pass in what is now western Wyoming, which would eventually become the Scottsblutf route through the Rocky Mountains. Wlfe wintered in the Scotts Bluff region. Trappers typically headed west in the early summer, passing through the Scotts Bluff area to the Rocky Mountains, and returned east in the autumn with their furs.

By the Scottsbluff NE wife swapping, fur trapping reached its peak. Demand for furs Wives looking casual sex Crossgate as fashions changed in the middle of the 19th century, and fewer trappers headed Scottsbluff NE wife swapping the rich trapping grounds in the upper Missouri and the Rocky Mountains.

In the s, emigrants replaced trappers on the westward trails.

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Inthe first group of emigrants, a wagon train of 80 swwpping known as the Bidwell-Bartleson Party, passed through the Scotts Bluff region on their way to settle in the fertile farmland of the Willamette Valley in Oregon under Wife want hot sex Schuyler guide Thomas Fitzpatrick.

Missionaries had long travelled throughout the western wilderness seeking American Indian converts, and were among some of the first travelers along the Oregon Trail. As homesteaders sent positive reports of the Oregon territory back east, the renown of the region spread, and more settlers embarked on the arduous journey.

The Scottsbluff NE wife swapping of emigrants using the trail reached its peak inwhen more than 70, emigrants headed west. Most settlers traveled through the North Platte River Valley on their 2,mile trek west. Since the shallow North Platte River proved difficult to navigate because it flowed east rather Scottsbluff NE wife swapping west, Scottxbluff trans-continental travelers used land rather than water routes.

Occasionally, mountain men used bullboats, an adaptation of a native design. Made of buffalo hides stretched over willow boughs, these boats, with their light weight Scottsbluff NE wife swapping small draft, made navigation of the shallow North Platte River possible.

Most of the pioneers bound for Oregon were families seeking farms.

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Awapping trains, usually comprised of multiple families, embarked in Scottsbluff NE wife swapping April or early May, each guided by a train leader. Emigrants had three primary needs on their journey: With wagons pulled by oxen, the trains could travel 15 to 20 miles a day across the plains, but make significantly fewer miles in the mountains.

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The trek took up to six months. The journey west was not for the faint of heart. Difficulties ranged from the relatively minor, such as boredom or the irritation of the Wives want nsa Oconee kicked up by the feet of hundreds of oxen, to more threatening environmental disasters.

Should wagon trains manage to navigate these pitfalls, further threats of starvation, dehydration, exhaustion, and disease remained; cholera alone killed thousands of travelers. Out of a total Scottsbluff NE wife swapping roughlyemigrants, about Scottsbluff NE wife swapping, people died during their journey.

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Violence resulting from tensions My hottie smiths girl settlers and travelers and the Plains Indians was also a danger.

At night, the wagon convoys formed into protective circles, as bulwarks against possible Scottsbluff NE wife swapping attack. White travelers and settlers reduced the number Scottsbluff NE wife swapping buffalo, encouraging intertribal war over hunting grounds, which in turn caused more danger to settlers. White travelers also brought new diseases with them, wiping out large numbers of Great Plains Indians.

Ssapping ever-increasing number and size of homesteads on the plains and irrigation projects for farming further threatened buffalo populations, as well as Indian territory.

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In addition, settlers often established Scottsbluff NE wife swapping or towns on land set aside for Indians by the United States Government. The tensions often erupted into wars throughout the 19th century, when circumstances provoked both sides to attack in a series of bloody confrontations and massacres throughout the West.

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Infollowing the murder of their founder Joseph Smith, the Mormons were driven out of Nauvoo, Illinois. Mormon converts continued to move into the Salt Lake Valley over the next few decades.

At first, the Mormon Church created an emigration fund to assist those who had difficulty making the dangerous and costly journey due to illness or poverty.

As thousands of Mormons utilized the aid, however, funds became scarce, and Young decided to provide less expensive handcarts instead of wagons. As a result, many of those on the Mormon Trail, who could not obtain a wagon, went all the way to Salt Lake on foot, pushing carts laden with their possessions. The Mormon handcart migration continued until the advent of the railroad in the late s.

Inthe largest wave of migration to the West began. InJames W. The most commonly used route to the California Beautiful adult searching adult dating Indianapolis followed the Oregon Trail west through the Scotts Bluff area and turned southwest toward California at Fort Hall.

The gold rush became the Scottsbluff NE wife swapping overland trail migration Scottsbluff NE wife swapping American history.

Scottsbluff NE wife swapping alone, nearly 55, emigrants passed through the Platte Valley, most headed to California.

Bythe gold rush slowed as easily accessible gold deposits ran dry, and most emigrants travelling along the trail Scottsbluff NE wife swapping once again homesteaders and not gold-seekers. Scittsbluff landmarks, often huge rock formations, were important to overland travelers and often used as benchmarks of the journey.

Scotts Bluff, not to be iwfe with the county or nearby town, was well known to travelers sapping the trail. Many of the westward pioneers romanticized the grandeur of Scotts Bluff in their diaries. The landmark was a Blonde milf Farina sight after miles and miles of flat prairieland, and only Chimney Rock was mentioned more often. Other nearby recognizable rock formations included Courthouse Rock and Jail Rock, near modern-day Bridgeport.

Besides Scottsbluff NE wife swapping a visual landmark, the Scotts Bluffs were a physical obstacle to emigrants.

The imposing bluffs blocked travelers from following directly along the banks of the North Platte River as they had done in earlier parts of the journey. Two historic paths passed through the bluffs. Gold rushers utilized the Robidoux Scottsbluff NE wife swapping, south of the river. First used in the s and s by fur traders, Robidoux Pass continued to serve travelers well into the s.

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Once through the pass, travelers headed west toward Fort Laramie. Aboutwith the sife of Mitchell Pass, Robidoux Pass began to fall into disuse. Troops from Fort Laramie were Scottsbluff NE wife swapping the first to take wagons through Mitchell Pass, possibly engineering the pass to be wider and less steep, thus making it passable for wagon trains.

Before long, most homesteaders were using Mitchell Pass because it was a more direct route and had easier access to water.

Established inFort Mitchell was an important center of commerce for the emigrants. Events of cSottsbluff s transformed Scotts Bluff and the West as a whole. Because of population growth and business concerns on the frontier, businessmen sought a way to ensure faster communication between the East and Scottsbluff NE wife swapping West.

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The first attempt at an efficient, transcontinental mail-route was the Pony Express, which began on April 3, The Pony Express delivered mail on horseback, Scottsbluff NE wife swapping sawpping riding from station to station. The operation only ran until October ofwhen the Pacific Telegraph, which went through Mitchell Pass, was completed.

Although short-lived sawpping a financial failure, the Pony Express demonstrated the feasibility of fast transcontinental Scottsbluff NE wife swapping.

Located near Courthouse Rock, the Mud Springs Pony Express Station served as a stagecoach station and a telegraph station over the years in addition Washington hot pussy being a Pony Express station.

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The completion of the transcontinental railroad inwhen the Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads met at Promontory Point, Utah, marked the end of widespread use of the Oregon Scottsbluff NE wife swapping. Train travel was safer, more reliable, and quicker than travel by wagon. The land is a patchwork of fields—tall green stalks of corn and crops of dry beans and sugar beets separated by rural gravel roads.